οὐ

οὐ
1
οὐ (Hom.+; s. Schwyzer II 591–94) objective (as opp. to subjective μή) negative adv., denying the reality of an alleged fact; in the NT used w. the ind. (μή serves as the neg. for the other moods, including inf. and ptc.—w. certain exceptions, which will be discussed below. S. B-D-F §426; Rob. 1168f; Mlt-Turner 281f). Before vowels w. the smooth breathing it takes the form οὐκ; before those w. the rough breathing it is οὐχ; in the mss. this rule is freq. disregarded (W-S. §5, 10bc; B-D-F §14; Rob. 224). On its use s. B-D-F §426–33; Rdm.2 p. 210ff; Rob. 1155–66.
a negative response to a question or statement, as accented form, οὔ: no Mt 13:29 (Schwyzer II 596f); J 1:21; 7:12; 21:5. ἤτω ὑμῶν τὸ οὒ οὔ let your ‘no’ be ‘no’ Js 5:12. Doubled for emphasis (s. ναί e.—οὒ οὔ Nicetas Eugen. 5, 76 H. Likew. μὴ μή=no, no! [Herodas 3, 71; Meleager, I B.C., in Anth. Pal. 12, 80, 3; Psellus p. 268, 15 μὴ μὴ μάγιστρε]) Mt 5:37; 2 Cor 1:17ff. On οὐ μὲν οὖν s. οὐμενοῦν.
marker of negative propositions, not
used to negative single words or clauses (Ar. 13, 7 μῦθοί εἰσι καὶ οὐκ ἄλλο τι; Just., A II, 2, 2 οὐ σωφρόνως; Tat. 5, 1 οὐ κατὰ ἀποκοπήν;—as earlier Gk.: Hom. et al.; s. Kühner-G. II, 182; Schwyzer II 593f)
α. οὐ πᾶς not every one Mt 7:21. οὐ πάντες 19:11; Ro 9:6; 10:16. πάντες οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα we shall not all fall asleep 1 Cor 15:51 (s. JBurn, ET, 1926, 236f; POppenheim, TQ 112, ’31, 92–135; AVaccari, Biblica 13, ’32, 73–76; B-D-F §433, 2; Rob. 753). Likew. transposed διατί πάντες οὐ μετενόησαν; why have not all repented? Hs 8, 6, 2. οὐ πᾶσα σάρξ 1 Cor 15:39. οὐ πάντως Ro 3:9; 1 Cor 5:10.—καλέσω τὸν οὐ λαόν μου λαόν μου those who were not my people I will call my people Ro 9:25a (Hos 2:25b); cp. 1 Pt 2:10. οὐκ ἔθνος no nation at all Ro 10:19 (Dt 32:21).
β. freq. in litotes (cp. Lysias 13, 62 εἰ μὲν οὐ πολλοὶ ἦσαν Tat. 3, 2) οὐ πολλοί, πολλαί J 2:12; Ac 1:5 (οὐ μετὰ πολλὰς ἡμέρας = μετʼ οὐ πολλ. ἡμ.; cp. οὐκ ἐξ ὄντων = ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων 2 Macc 7:28). οὐκ ὀλίγος, ὀλίγη, ὀλίγοι, ὀλίγαι Ac 17:4, 12; 19:23f; 27:20. οὐκ ἄσημος 21:39. οὐχ ἁγνῶς Phil 1:17. οὐ μετρίως Ac 20:12. οὐκ ἐκ μέτρου J 3:34. μετʼ οὐ πολύ soon (afterward) Ac 27:14 S. also δ below.
γ. not in a contrast τῷ κυρίῳ καὶ οὐκ ἀνθρώποις Col 3:23. τρέχω ὡς οὐκ ἀδήλως 1 Cor 9:26.
δ. as a periphrasis for some concepts expressed by verbs: οὐκ ἀγνοεῖν know quite well 2 Cor 2:11. οὐκ ἐᾶν prevent Ac 16:7 (cp. Il. 2, 132); 19:30. οὐκ ἔχειν be in need Mt 13:12; Mk 4:25 (on these two pass. s. Schwyzer II 593, w. ref. to Kühner-G. II 189–92; contrast the use of μή in Lk 8:18). οὐ θέλειν refuse 2 Th 3:10. οὐ πταίειν Js 3:2. οὐχ ὑπακούειν be disobedient 2 Th 3:14. οὐ φιλεῖν be unfriendly to, disesteem 1 Cor 16:22.
used sometimes w. the ptc. From a above are derived the points under which this is done, contrary to the rule given at beg. of entry. In addition, it is prob. that in individual cases earlier literary influence is still at work (for earlier Gk. s. Kühner-G. II 198–203. μή suggests contingency).—B-D-F §430; Mlt. 231f (w. pap exx.; cp. Just., A I, 33, 4 οὐ συνουσιασθεῖσαν τὴν παρθένον; 67, 5 τοῖς οὐ παροῦσι al.); Rdm.2 212; Mlt-Turner 284f.
α. to negative a single concept: πράγματα οὐ βλεπόμενα things not seen Hb 11:1. οὐχ ὁ τυχών extraordinary Ac 19:11; 28:2 (cp. Com. Att. Fgm. III 442 no. 178 οὐδὲ τοῖς τυχοῦσι). θλιβόμενοι ἀλλʼ, οὐ στενοχωρούμενοι 2 Cor 4:8; cp. vs. 9.
β. in strong emphasis or contrast: ἄνθρωπον οὐκ ἐνδεδυμένον ἔνδυμα γάμου (emphasizing the fact that his dress was improper) Mt 22:11. οὐ προσδεξάμενοι τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν (emphasizing the great heroism of their act) Hb 11:35. οὐ βλέπων Lk 6:42. οὐκ ἰδόντες 1 Pt 1:8. οὐκ ὄντος αὐτῷ τέκνου Ac 7:5.—Contrast: Ac 28:19. τότε μὲν οὐκ εἰδότες θεὸν … νῦν δέ Gal 4:8. καὶ οὐ introducing a contrast is also used w. the ptc. καὶ οὐκ ἐν σαρκὶ πεποιθότες Phil 3:3. καὶ οὐ κρατῶν Col 2:19. ὁ μισθωτὸς καὶ οὐκ ὢν ποιμήν J 10:12.
γ. In quotations fr. the LXX in the NT we notice the tendency of the OT translators regularly to render לֹא w. the ptc. by οὐ: ἡ οὐ τίκτουσα, ἡ οὐκ ὠδίνουσα Gal 4:27 (Is 54:1). τὴν οὐκ ἠγαπημένην Ro 9:25b (Hos 2:25a). οἱ οὐκ ἠλεημένοι 1 Pt 2:10 (Hos 1:6).
δ. τὰ οὐκ ἀνήκοντα Eph 5:4 v.l. is presumably a mingling of τὰ μὴ ἀνήκοντα and (the rdg. in the text itself) ἃ οὐκ ἀνῆκεν (as early as P46).
in main clauses
α. in simple statements w. the indic. οὐκ ἐγίνωσκεν αὐτήν Mt 1:25. οὐ δύνασθε θεῷ δουλεύειν καὶ μαμωνᾷ 6:24. οὐκ ἤφιεν λαλεῖν τὰ δαιμόνια Mk 1:34. οὐκ ἦν αὐτοῖς τέκνον Lk 1:7. οὐχ ὑμῶν ἐστιν Ac 1:7. οὐ γάρ ἐπαισχύνομαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον Ro 1:16 and very oft. οὐ γάρ σου ἠκούσαμέν ποτε AcPlCor 1:14.
β. used to negative the prohibitive future (Hebr. לֹא w. the impf.—Synes., Ep. 67 p. 211b οὐκ ἀγνοήσεις) οὐ φονεύσεις Mt 5:21; cp. vs. 27; Mt 19:18; Ro 7:7; 13:9 (all commandments fr. the Decalogue: Ex 20:13–17; Dt 5:17–21). Also οὐκ ἐπιορκήσεις Mt 5:33. οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις κύριον Lk 4:12 (Dt 6:16); Ac 23:5 (Ex 22:27); 1 Cor 9:9 (Dt 25:4).—Mt 6:5.
in subordinate clauses
α. in relative clauses w. indic. (in the NT, μή is found in such clauses only Tit 1:11; 2 Pt 1:9; 1J 4:3 [but s. B-D-F §428, 4 and Rob. 1158]; Ac 15:29 D; Col 2:18 v.l.): Mt 10:38; 12:2; Mk 4:25 (s. 2aδ above) Lk 6:2; J 6:64; Ro 15:21 (Is 52:15); Gal 3:10 (Dt 27:26) al.
β. in declarative clauses w. ὅτι, likew. in temporal and causal clauses w. ind.: ὅτι οὐ J 5:42; 1 Th 2:1. ὁ ἀρνούμενος ὅτι Ἰησοῦς οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ Χριοτός 1J 2:22 (on the negative here s. ἀρνέομαι 2).—ἐπει οὐ Lk 1:34. ὅτε οὐ 2 Ti 4:3.—εἰ οὐ w. indic.: εἰ οὐ δώσει αὐτῷ Lk 11:8; cp. ὅστις (ὸ̔ς) οὐκ ἔχει Mt 13:12 and Mk 4:25=ὸ̔ς ἂν μὴ ἔχει Lk 8:18 (Schwyzer II 593). εἰ ἐν τῷ ἀλλοτρίῳ πιστοὶ οὐκ ἐγένεσθε 16:12; Mk 11:26; Lk 18:4; J 1:25; 10:37; Ro 8:9b; 11:21; Hb 12:25.—Once actually in a contrary-to-fact condition: καλὸν ἦν αὐτῷ εἰ οὐκ ἐγεννήθη Mt 26:24=Mk 14:21=1 Cl 46:8 (B-D-F §428, 2; Rob. 1160; Mlt-Turner 284).
in combination w. other negatives, strengthening the negation (Mel. Chor. Adesp., Fgm. no. 11 Diehl2 [’42] οὐ μήποτε τὰν ἀρετὰν ἀλλάξομαι ἀντʼ ἀδίκου κέρδεος ‘I shall never exchange virtue for unjust gain’; GrBar 13:3 οὐκ … οὐδέν; Just., D. 26, 1) Mt 22:16; Mk 5:37; Lk 4:2; 23:53 (οὐκ ἦν οὐδεὶς οὔπω); J 6:63; 11:49; 12:19; 15:5; Ac 8:39; 2 Cor 11:9. οὐ μηκέτι (s. μηκέτι fα) Mt 21:19 v.l. For use in questions s. 3 below.
α. On the combination of οὐ and μή s. μή 4.
β. The combining of οὐδέ and οὐ μή to form οὐδʼ οὐ μή instead of οὐδὲ μή is a late development (a barbarism?; B-D-F §431, 3; Rob. 1175; Mlt-Turner 286.—Prayer to the god Socnopaeus: Mitt-Wilck I/2, 122, 2ff εἰ οὐ δίδοταί μοι συμβιῶσαι Ταπεθεῦτι Μαρρείους οὐδʼ οὐ μὴ γένηται ἄλλου γυνή [Rdm.2 211f]; LXX) Mt 24:21. οὐ μή σε ἀνῶ οὐδʼ οὐ μή σε ἐγκαταλίπω Hb 13:5 (Dt 31:6 A, 8 A οὐδ οὐ μή; 1 Ch 28:20 A).—οὐδὲν … οὐ μὴ ἀδικήσει instead of οὐδὲν … μὴ … Lk 10:19. οὐδὲν οὐ μὴ λήψῃ Hm 9:5.
w. one of two clauses that are either coordinate or contrasted.
α. οὐ … ἀλλά s. ἀλλά 1ab.—1 Th 2:4 the οὐ w. the ptc. is prob. to be explained under this head (s. 3 above).
β. οὐ … , … δέ Ac 12:9, 14; Hb 4:13, 15.
γ. …, ἀλλʼ οὐ looking back upon a ‘to be sure’ 1 Cor 10:5, 23.
δ. οὐ μόνον, ἀλλὰ (καί) s. μόνος 2c.
ε. οὐ … εἰ μή s. εἰ 6i.
marker of expectation of an affirmative answer, not so?
to a direct question (Hom. et al.):
α. do … not? does … not? (B-D-F §427, 2; Rob. 917): οὐκ ἀκούεις, πόσα σου καταμαρτυροῦσιν; you hear, do you not …? Mt 27:13. οὐχ ὑμεῖς μᾶλλον διαφέρετε αὐτῶν; 6:26. Cp. vs. 30. ὁ διδάσκαλος ὑμῶν οὐ τελεῖ δίδραχμα; your teacher pays the two-drachma tax, does he not? Mt 17:24.—Mk 6:3; 7:18; 12:24; Lk 11:40; J 4:35; 6:70; 7:25; Ac 9:21 and oft. οὐ μέλει σοι ὅτι ἀπολλύμεθα; does it make no difference to you that we are perishing? Mk 4:38. In a related sense
β. destroying the force of the negation (cp. Hdt. et al.; Schwyzer II 598): Ac 4:20; 1 Cor 12:15 (B-D-F §431, 1; Rob. 1164).—In questions, if the verb itself is already negatived (by οὐ), the negation can be invalidated by the interrogative particle μή (s. μή 3a), which expects the answer ‘no’, so that the stage is set for an affirmative answer (Aesop, Fab. 374 P.=404aH. μὴ οὐκ ἔστι χλόη;=certainly there is grass, is there not?) μὴ οὐκ ἤκουσαν; surely they have heard, have they not? Ro 10:18; cp. vs. 19. μὴ οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν; we have the right, do we not? 1 Cor 9:4; cp. vs. 5. μὴ οἰκίας οὐκ ἔχετε; you have houses, do you not? 11:22.
to a question expressed impatiently in the second pers. of the fut. indic. and functioning as an imperative οὐ παύσῃ;=παῦσαι! will you not stop? = stop! Ac 13:10.—DELG. M-M.
2
οὐ μεν οὖν (so Aristoph., Plu. 870, Ran. 556; 1188; also οὐμενοῦν Paus. 1, 21, 1) adv. (Aristoph., Pla. et al.; incl. Luc., Jupp. Tr. 35 twice.—Kühner=G. II 158) a marker introducing a negative statement in contradiction of discourse that precedes, not at all, by no means (expressing a strong negation to a question) Dg 7:4.
3
οὐ μή s. μή 4.

Ελληνικά-Αγγλικά παλαιοχριστιανική Λογοτεχνία. 2015.

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